Process of uranium dating
These three kinds of radiation have very different properties in some respects but are all ionizing radiation–each is energetic enough to break chemical bonds, thereby possessing the ability to damage or destroy living cells.
Uranium-238, the most prevalent isotope in uranium ore, has a half-life of about 4.5 billion years; that is, half the atoms in any sample will decay in that amount of time.
Uranium-238 decays by alpha emission into thorium-234, which itself decays by beta emission to protactinium-234, which decays by beta emission to uranium-234, and so on.
The various decay products, (sometimes referred to as “progeny” or “daughters”) form a series starting at uranium-238.
This process, known as radioactive decay, generally results in the emission of alpha or beta particles from the nucleus.
The process used to increase the amount of uranium-235 relative to uranium-238 is known as uranium enrichment. Weapons use “highly enriched uranium” (HEU) with over 90 percent uranium-235. A major hazard in both the uranium conversion and uranium enrichment processes comes from the handling of uranium hexafluoride, which is chemically toxic as well as radioactive.
The principal goals of federal regulations are to limit the seepage of radionuclides and heavy metals into groundwater and reduce emissions of radon-222 to the air.
Mandatory standards for decommissioning nuclear facilities including conversion and enrichment facilities are only now being developed by the U.
The total volume of mill tailings generated in the U. is over 95 percent of the volume of all radioactive waste from all stages of the nuclear weapons and power production.
While the hazard per gram of mill tailings is low relative to most other radioactive wastes, the large volume and lack of regulations until 1980 have resulted in widespread environmental contamination.