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The theory behind radiocarbon dating is as follows: Why doesn't the carbon-14 in the air decay along with terrestrial carbon? The trick is that radioactive carbon-14 is continually replenished in a complex reaction that involves high-energy cosmic rays striking the upper atmosphere.In this process, nitrogen-14 (7 protons and 7 neutrons) gains a neutron and loses a proton, producing carbon-14 (6 protons and 8 neutrons).Arguments in support of the most recently proposed late 17th century calibrated calendar range for Thera () have focused on the consistency with which a large number of radiocarbon determinations from different laboratories, on different sample types, from secure archaeological contexts immediately predating the eruption, calibrate to the same point in time.While this logic confirms the synchronicity of the network of archaeological contexts, and the interlaboratory agreement on an approximate temporal window during which the eruption occurred, the derived calibrated calendar date ranges are highly dependent on how accurately Int Cal13 represents radiocarbon levels for the time period.Thus carbon-14 has six protons and eight neutrons.) Carbon-12 is by far the most abundant carbon isotope, and carbon-12 and -13 are both stable.But carbon-14 is slightly radioactive: it will spontaneously decay into nitrogen-14 by emitting an anti-neutrino and an electron, with a half-life of 5730 years.Conversely, contamination by newer plant matter carried by flowing water or intruding plant roots may result in a date that is much too young. The original technique was based on counting the number of individual radioactive decay events per unit of time, using a device similar to a Geiger counter.

The technique is based on measuring the ratio of two isotopes of carbon.Using calendar-dated tree rings, we created an annual resolution radiocarbon time series 1700–1500 BCE to validate, improve, or more clearly define the limitations for radiocarbon calibration of materials from key eruption contexts.Results show an offset from the international radiocarbon calibration curve, which indicates a shift in the calibrated age range for Thera toward the 16th century BCE.Radiocarbon dating—also known as carbon-14 dating—is a technique used by archaeologists and historians to determine the age of organic material.It can theoretically be used to date anything that was alive any time during the last 60,000 years or so, including charcoal from ancient fires, wood used in construction or tools, cloth, bones, seeds, and leather.

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